Grace United Church Of Christ

Affirming & Open

Located at 1947 New Holland Pike in Lancaster Pennsylvania, the Grace United Church of Christ is renowned for having a congregation that is both affirming and open.

Grace UCC do not have a large congregation but do have a distinctive one! Grace UCC offer a most warm and extremely welcoming fellowship. What’s more, Grace provide a community to encourage any faith journey offering worship that is vibrant and stimulating. In addition, Grace is just the place to be for anyone who may be concerned with social justice.


Grace’s members include people from all walks of life, ethnicity, denominations, gender orientation and religious beliefs. The congregation includes single folks as well as traditional and contemporary family backgrounds. Grace worshippers include: laborers, artists, professionals, educators, retirees, homemakers and business people.


How studies determine the most desirable signal controllers, cycle lengths and settings for a coordinated traffic signal systems in major cities.

The primary objective of these studies is the development of a traffic lights signal control systems with a timing program which is designed to reduce traffic delay to a practical minimum.

The study area normally comprises a large portion of any downtown area which contains 68 signalized intersections. Most of these traffic signals arc proposed signals; changes are being made in intersection geometry and in phasing, and new signals which are to be installed at some intersections where they do not now exist. Volumes, too, are projections to the time after completion of the various urban renewal projects located in, or bordering on, the study area. The projects include; the central business districts, government locations, waterfronts, and urban renewal areas.

Study areas normally resolve into a system of 150 traffic light links between signalized intersections. A number of routes through the system are normally designated by the particular redevelopment authority involved as priority routes i.e. it is more important to reduce delays on these routes than on routes not given any priority.

Normal methodology involves for such studies involves a technique developed based on a method of delay minimization which determines optimum offsets for all signals in a network of any configuration.

Inputs to the program are: the geometry of the system; volumes on each of the links; cycle lengths; phase splits (proportions of "go" time given to the various approaches at an intersection); importance factors (to indicate relative priorities of the various routes); and desired differences in offsets of adjoining intersections (based on travel speeds, distances between intersections, and time required to clear standing queues).

Outputs are the optimized offsets for each intersection and a delay propensity factor for the system and for each individual link. Also available as optional output, for comparison purposes, are delay propensity factors for the existing system and for the individual links, (This optional output does not affect the optimization process, but does require existing offsets to be input to the program). The "delay propensity factor" represents the tendency to produce delay due to discrepancies between ideal and actual differences in offset between adjoining signalized intersections, and is given in terms of seconds per vehicle per signalized intersection. Other factors contributing to delay, such as marginal friction and overloading of the system, are largely independent of signal timing, and are not reflected by the delay propensity factor.

Because of the variations in traffic flow patterns, the optimization program is run separately for various times of day; using a coarse breakdown into four time periods, and a fine breakdown into twelve time periods. The purpose of this is to determine whether a finer breakdown will produce a sufficient decrease in delay to warrant additional expenditures for more flexible traffic signal equipment sourced from approved traffic light suppliers.

On the basis of present levels of technology and the projected traffic flows furnished by research organizations, it is recommended that metropolitan areas proceed with the installation of a multi-dial fixed-time traffic signal system which will suit the immediate and near future needs of downtown areas. It is also recommended that the cities initiate engineering studies to plan how systems should best develop into a more sophisticated computer controlled system which future traffic demands may require.

Six-dial controllers could be obtained with up to five offsets and four splits available per dial. It is recommended that this type of controller be obtained for fixed-time systems.

The recommended timing patterns for fixed-time systems require five dials and utilize from 1 to 4 offsets and from 1 to 4 splits per dial. Cards containing the recommended splits, offsets and cycle lengths for each of the 68 signalized intersections in study areas are normally presented to the nominated development Authority, accompanied by space-time charts for all recommended timing patterns for the major routes through the area.

The high volumes in the study area, which cause intersections to frequently operate at or near capacity usually prompt the following additional recommendations

1. Pedestrians should be allowed to cross with turning vehicles

2. Certain phasing and routing changes should be implemented at several intersections

The Things We Take For Granted - architecture

Architects craft all sorts of facilities. These professionals design colleges as well as high-rises. They create medical facilities and hotels. These individuals also devise churches, rail stations along with ordinary old ordinary residences.

 Any kind of structure which is utilized by folks was definitely probably designed by some architect.

An architect is someone that loves to design, and is specially taught and accredited to work on the planning and design of properties and the surrounding landscape including street furniture amenities. The facets of an architect's role are as diverse and interesting as their work; they are professionals who drive the activity of building well-designed spaces, from idea and design to a total realization of those concepts.

 Architecture is a craft that works together with science to develop places where folks can live, eat, work as well as play. As a pioneer of various ventures, from something as modest as an enhancement to a person's property, to some thing as large as a medical facility, university campus, or a whole neighborhood, the function of an architect is to combine the imaginative plans as well as visions of the customer and keep in mind the requirements of those people that are going to be using the brand-new location.

 However, precisely what does the phrase "design" imply? A design is simply a plan of action. Before designing a structure, an architect needs to form a blueprint of the facility. Occasionally architects will definitely produce a card board or scale model of the property.

An architect is not just associated with the concept of a property. As a registered expert these people are also responsible for public safety along with oversight of projects. Their function is essential in each and every juncture of the establishment's development, ranging from the preliminary approach to the opening event when the structure is finished. Past final completion, an architect typically stays involved in a project as premises change to incorporate brand new environments and also new ideas.

 The facility is then put up by a building company which in turn follows the instructions of the plans for the building. The architect is going to very closely oversee the development service provider to make sure that the facility is produced according to the plans.

 Okay then, but but what does an architect do when he or she draws up a plan?

Architects will have to consider lots of things well before they compose the plans for a building. Initially these professionals will have to think about precisely what the building will be utilized for. How many folks are intending to make use of the building at the same period of time? What types of functions will these folks do in the building?

 n office complex will need numerous compact areas for business offices. A college will need many medium size spaces for school rooms. Furthermore a rail terminal will certainly need a much larger area for dozens of individuals to pass through all at once.

 A building that is not carefully created could catch on fire or fall over on itself.

Architects have to create building to ensure that individuals can leave from the structure in an unexpected emergency. Naturally, some emergencies, like quakes or hurricanes, destroy even the most safe structures.

A handful of years earlier an architect got a real shock when one of the facilities they produced subsided under the weight of a 12 inches of water-logged snow. The structure was a sports stadium with a huge, circular roof. The heavy snow put a lot of pressure on the roof that the roof crumpled. As luck would have it no one was in the sports stadium at the time.

 Apart from contemplating the function and safety of a structure, architects also spend time creatively pondering on how they want the facility to look. Just as an artist determines which colors to put exactly where in a picture, an architect figures out exactly where to place the spaces, retaining walls, and also open spaces in a property.

 Just like various painters possess different types of art work, different architects have various styles of constructing. One particular architect may perhaps want to make use of a great deal of circles and curves in their structures. Another architect might just prefer to craft structures that look modern and spread out.

So architects need to be good artists and very good scientists whenever they develop a facility. The facility should be pleasurable to view, enjoyable to operate in as well as strong enough to be safe from most natural disasters.

 Attempting to carry out all these particular matters simultaneously is part of the challenge and pleasure of being an architect.

 The aspects of work can be split into three main roles or phases- the design, documentation and construction roles.

 In the conceptual function, an architect is hired by a client to generate comprehensive styles of a a scheme or suggestion which the patron wishes to bring to reality. In addition to needing to have innovative concept suggestions, this part of the role entails a great deal of technical know-how along with accountability. There is a requirement adhere to building and health and safety statutes, local planning codes and constraints. Depending on the project there might be rules covering the preservation of the community environment or any historic parts of a building. Frequent client conferences are vital to establish prerequisites and discuss detailed concept plans. Similarly important is heading up the group of specialists which will work on this stage of the undertaking including engineers, designers and financiers.

 Throughout the documentation phase, the duties are to record the design in electronic form, generating detailed drawings and using technology such as CAD to assess the expediency of the design. This particular phase can involve continuous revision and revision to incorporate alterations based on the client's requirements, budget and also codes. Once the construction documents are complete, generally there are then a second set of documents that have to be produced.

 These are the construction plans, which transpose the concept into instructions and technical requirements for licensed contractors and construction specialists. The moment the scheme reaches the building phase, the architect will certainly be involved in building site meetings and visits, keeping an eye on the building and approving a variety of construction phases, finalizing surrounding landscape designs negotiating with service providers and dealing with and solving any troubles that might arise.

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